NORA LEVIN, historian, and author of The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry, 1933-1945, died in October at the age of 73. Levin was associate professor of modern Jewish history at Gratz College where she founded their Holocaust Oral History Archive.

RACHEL WISCHNITZER, renowned authority on synagogue art and architecture, died in November at the age of 104. Wischnitzer was a curator at Berlin’s Jewish Museum from 1933-38 and emigrated to the U.S. In 1940, where she established the fine arts department at Yeshiva University’s Stern College for Women.